中国人学英语时容易忽视的基本文法规则

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        英文和我们中文最大的不同,是在动词,我们中文的动词很简单,没有所谓的第几人称,也没有复数和单数之分,更没有过去式或进行式,英文可不同了,凡是用动词的时候,必须注意很多很多的规则,一旦弄错了,常常是犯了大错。
        在这一章,我要将英文最基本的规则一一列下。这些规则都是我们中国人所常常不注意的。
        为了不要误导读者,错误的句子前面都有〝*〞的符号。

规则(1):两个动词是不能联在一起用的。
在中文,我们常说“我是爱你的”,翻成英文,这就变成了
* I am love you.
滑稽的是,这句英文句子犯了大忌,因为〝am〞是动词,〝love〞也是动词,两个动词是不能联在一起用的。这句话的正确说法是:
I love you. 或者 I am in love with you.
我们中国人也会说〝我喜欢看电视〞,翻成英文,这变成
* I love watch television.
这个句子也犯了同样的错。
以下几个句子都是错的,因为这些句子中都有两个动词连在一起的情形:
* I hate eat fish.
* I love play basketball.
* I love swim.
如果你一定要讲“我爱游泳”,怎么办呢?请看以下的规则。

规则(2):如一定要同时用两个动词,后者的前面必须加“to”或者将后者加入“ing”
“我爱游泳”,因此有两种正确的译法:
I love to swim.
I love swimming.
以下的句子都是正确的:
I hate to eat fish.
I hate eating fish.
I love to play basketball.
I love playing basketball
I keep going to church.

规则(3):主词如果是第三人称,现在式及单数,动词必须加s.
我们中国人最不容易记得的规则,恐怕就是这一条了,以下的句子都是错的。
* He write very well.
* Jack love playing the violin.
* Mary swim every day.
正确的句子是:
He writes very well.
Jack loves playing the violin.
Mary swims every day.

规则(4):绝大多数的否定的句子,不能直接加“not”
我们中文对否定语气,规则极为简单,我们可以说“我不爱你”,但是我们不能说
* I not love you.
我们也不能说:
* I not saw that movie.
* I not like swimming.
* He not likes playing violin.
我们必须用一种助动词来完成否定的句子,以下才是正确的否定句子:
I do not love you.
I did not see that movie.
He does not like playing violin.
请注意,在以上的句子中,do和did都是助动词,do是现在式,did是过去式。
关于现在式和过去式,究竟是怎么一回事,以后我们会解释清楚的。
助动词不限于“do”和它的变型,can、will、would、shall、may、must等等都是助动词,因此,以下的英文句子又都是对的:
He can not swim.
They will not go to church tomorrow.
Mary should not go to the party.
I shall not see you.
He may not go out tonight.
He must not eat meat any more.

规则(5):在不定词“to”的后面,必须用原形动词
英文中的动词,是会变化的,以have为例,第一人称和第三人就不同:
I have a dog.
He has a dog.
如果是过去式,动词又要变化。have的过去式是had,不论第几人称,一概都要用had。
几乎每一个英文动词的过去式都有变化,以下是几个例子:
现在式 过去式
go went
come came
eat ate
play played
swim swam
不论那一个动词,都有一个原形动词,一切都是从这个原形动词变出来的,像go、drink、have、walk、love、like等等都是原形动词。
如果我们有必要要用不定词to,就必须用原形动词,例如to go、to drink、to have,都是正确的,*to went;*to drank;*to loved等等都是错的。
英文中有一个动词最为麻烦,那就是am、are、is、was、were等等,翻译成中文,这都是,而这些动词的来源都是be,所以我们说这些动词都是verb to be。
以下的句子都用上了〝be〞
I want to be a teacher.
He wants to be a good father.
They all love to be rich.
No one likes to be poor.

规则(6):英文中有所谓的助动词。必须注意
英文中有很多动词都是助词动,在规则(4)中,我们说在绝大多数的否定语句中,必须用助动词do或did。Do是原形动词,did 和does都是do的变形。
除了do是助动词以外,can、may、might、will、would、must也都是助动词。
以上所提到的助动词,都有一个共同的特色,那就是这些助动词后的动词必须是原形动词,以下的句子都是正确的:
He can swim.
He does not swim.
I do not speak English.
You must walk to work every day.
I did not work yesterday.
You may leave now.
I will go to Taipei tomorrow.
以下的句子都是错的:
* I did not went.
* He does not goes to work.
* You must walked to work.
除了以上的助动词以外,还有一个非常特殊的助动词,那就是have,在这个助动词的后面,动词绝对不能用原形动词,以下是用这个助动词的例子:
I have been to England.
I have slept all day.
I have studied English since I was a child.
been、slept 和studied都是过去分词(past participle),以下的句子也都是现在完成式,我们后讨论完成式的时候,会将这些解释清楚的。

规则(7):英文问句要有助动词
我们先看看以下的英文句子,这些都是错的:
* How many books you wrote?
* How many sons you have?
正确的句子是:
Why do you drink so much water?
How many books did you write?
How many sons do you have?
绝大多数的英文问句子是一定要有助动词,以下全是正确的英文问句,你可以看出每一句的助动词吗?
Do you love me?
Did you go to school yesterday?
How many books do you have?
How much money does he have?
Why don’t you go back home?
Do you like to swim?
Can you play violin?
Will you go home tomorrow?
Would you give me a call?
当然啦,一旦动词是verb to be,我们又不需要助动词了,以下都是正确的英文问句:
Are you a teacher?
Is he a student?
Is Mr. Chang your father?
Were your mother and father in England last year?

规则(8):特殊动词随主词的变化
英文中,有些动词因主词不同而改变,verb to be是其中之一,因此,我们必须记得以下的规则:
第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
现在式 单数 I am You are (He,She,It)is
复数 We are You are They are
过去式 单数 I was You were (He,She,It)was
复数 We were You were They were
Verb to have也有类似的变化:
第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
现在式 单数 I have You have (He,She,It)has
复数 We have You have They have
过去式 单数 I had You had (He,She,It)had
复数 We had You had They had